Tunnel Fire Testing and Modeling: The Morgex North Tunnel Experiment

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There are also these commands: View the schedule: allows the viewing of the weekly synoptic schedule Delete the schedule: cancels the selections made When you have finished the entry, you can print the calendar you have made. This results is consistent with the measurements of Chatris et al. The four pools located downstream 3—6 in Fig. These four pools extin- guished, due to the complete fuel consumption, almost at the same time after about 15 min.

On the contrary, the burning rate of the two pools located upstream was visibly less intense and more consistent with the values predicted by means of the correlations of Table 3. These two pans extinguished after about 20 min. This way, it was possible to ensure a correct alignment of feet of the pan during the test, which would have otherwise caused the same to slide from the load cells and the fuel to flip over.

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It was possible to ascertain that the combustion time of 20 L of diesel found inside the tank was equal to approximately 7 min. Such a temporal value is in line with the estimates made thanks to the correlation presented in Table 3. It is interesting to notice that this value, which can be also estimated with the parameters of the correlation presented in this work Table 3. It is important to notice that this is an average value that underestimates the peak heat release which was observed when the six pools reached the maximum HRR.

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In fact, the instantaneous mass burning rate tended to increase with time due to the progressive heating of the diesel oil pool as shown in Fig. For this reason, the Morgex North tunnel remained in operation also during the construction works needed to prepare and install all the equipment, instruments, insulation materials etc.

The organisation of the test included an important phase dedicated to safety issues. The tests in fact saw the presence of technical observers capable of wit- nessing the two accidental scenarios. This way, the area set aside for observers would have ensured, if need be, a rapid evacuation of persons in case of danger.

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Such a solution further enabled the transport of observers on buses to the southern roadway near the bypass. The safety management during the test has been ensured by the presence of the Aosta Valley Fire Department personnel, including their vehicles as illustrated in Fig. In order to be able to provide real-time information to the observers, an audio sound system has been set up. The fuel selected diesel complies with a number of characteristics making it suitable for the tests. Secondly, given its low volatility, it does not pose relevant safety problems, whether in its transport or in its use within a closed and poorly ventilated environment such as a road tunnel.

Besides, being a liquid fuel, its representation inside computational fluid dynamics CFD codes is less complex, for instance, than that of a solid fuel, concerning which it is necessary to characterize not only its combustion flame speed during the gas phase but also the pyrolysis reaction rate. The sequence of the sections accordingly make reference to these coordinates. The equipped sections are summarized in Table 3. After the closure of the tunnel, it was possible to quickly arrange the supports provided in the passing lane, reducing the total time needed to setup all the mea- suring devices and instruments.

These values were monitored with different detectors only for safety reasons Fig. These positions were assumed to grant a representative coverage of the section, for what concern in particular the temperatures distribution. Position M Position S. Position C 10, In this section, the activities related to the preparation of the accidental scenario are described. The underprops and supports used to sustain the measuring devices and probes were prepared using an insulating material consisting of wool sheets made by alkaline earth silicate capable of ensuring a high degree of thermal insulation.

As already mentioned, the same insulating material was also used for the pro- tection of the equipment found in the tunnel with a view to preserving their integrity and correct functioning. Besides the radiative cracked cable, it was also necessary to protect the lamps located on the-left hand side of the tunnel. The phase of preparation of the underprops and protection of the installations has been implemented through the aid of hydraulic baskets and platforms capable of reaching suitable heights to carry out the single machining operations.

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Figures 3. As an example, Fig. Depending on the sections of the tunnel, type J or type K thermocouples were used during the experiments. Both the devices and cables were shielded to avoid possible interferences especially due to thermal effects; they were connected to different data-loggers so as to have the real-time acquisition of the temperatures along the whole area of the experiments with a length of about m. The thermocouples position is summarized in Table 3.

Tables 3.

Free Tunnel Fire Testing And Modeling: The Morgex North Tunnel Experiment

These instruments allowed also for the determination of the size distribution of the dispersed smoke particles, from PM0. Finally, a series of 4 load cells Fig. Rew, P. Process Saf. Chatris, J. Flame , — 3. Babrauskas, V.

Steinhaus, T. The experimental activity involved measurements for air smoke temperature and velocity, exhausts and air composition O2, CO, CO2 , Particulate Matter PM concentration and size distribution. On the basis of preliminary calculations, it was possible to identify different tunnel sections where thermocouples trees and other instruments were located.

Figure 4. The smoke back-layering visible in the central picture completely disappeared after the activation of the emergency ventilation system which increased the air velocity. Furthermore, Fig. Moreover, it is also possible to observe the strong thermal effects on the insulation material positioned below the fuel pans to protect the pavement. Using the correlation of [2], which is. From the same corre- lation, the ventilation velocity necessary to reduce the back-layering length to a value lower than 5 m is 3.

It is important to notice. Moreover, Fig. In particular, Fig.


Tunnel Fire Testing and Modeling

As expected, back-layering is visible in Fig. As the experimental data refer to a relatively small number of thermocouples to cover a very large area, these temperature plots are only illustrative and do not allow any quantitative analyses. Figures 4. However, as can be seen from Figs. In par- ticular, the obstacle used to reproduce a semi-trailer, especially at high air velocities,. It is interesting to notice that Fire Test 1 was performed with an emergency ventilation velocity higher than the corresponding one used in the Fire Test 2, therefore it should be expected to have a.

In this way, it is possible to calculate an angle of about 1. Equation AGA 0. Both theoretical analysis and experimental data, including the Morgex ones, show that the flame angle is directly related to the dimensionless ventilation velocity. Dashed line shows the equation proposed by [14]. Also in this case the agreement with predictions of empirical models and other literature experiments is satisfactory. In the next section the Morgex tests will be compared to model predictions using the CFD code FDS following the same methodology described by Tavelli et al.

CFD models must be validated against full-scale, transient experimental data in order to assess their reliability [16] before being deployed in risk assessment, which is becoming a fundamental element in designing and upgrading tunnels according to national and international guidelines [17, 18].

FDS model solves the equations for the conservation mass, species, and momentum, taking into account conductive and radiative heat fluxes. The tunnel geometry and its main characteristics were already presented in Chap. In this section, only the boundary conditions adopted for the CFD sim- ulations are presented. These values were used as transient boundary conditions for the simu- lations with the FDS code. Finally, the fuel mixture varies its composition during the combus- tion process, leading to complete absence of steady-state burning condition [22].